By: | Muhammad Ali Azlan |
” Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it…”
I for one have always believed in this statement and a wise man is one who also learns from the mistakes of others.
Propaganda, Disinformation, Cyber warfare, Cultural Invasion, Hacking, Dark Web, Deep Web and Fake News, these terms have been a mainstay of the Media and security circles post World-War 2, Here we will try to connect some possible dots on how and why it happens , It’s possible outcomes and significant events in History which changed the landscape of Warfare, We may very well be on the fringe of the next era in Warfare, The 6th Generation.
The Battle of Dunkirk was an important battle in the Second World War between the Allies and Germany. As part of the Battle of France on the Western Front, the Battle of Dunkirk was the defence and evacuation of British and allied forces in Europe from 26 May to 4 June 1940.
On 24 May, Hitler had visited General von Rundstedt’s headquarters at Charleville. Von Rundstedt advised him the infantry should attack the British forces at Arras, where the British had proved capable of significant action, while Kleist’s armour held the line west and south of Dunkirk in order to pounce on the Allied forces retreating before Army Group B. This order allowed the Germans to consolidate their gains and prepare for a southward advance against the remaining French forces.
The terrain around Dunkirk was thought unsuitable for armour; Hitler was familiar with Flanders’ marshes from World War I. Despite his pilots’ needed to rest after two weeks of nonstop combat, Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring asked for the chance to destroy the forces in Dunkirk. The Allied forces’ destruction was thus initially assigned to the air force and the German infantry organised in Army Group B.
Von Rundstedt later called this “one of the great turning points of the war.” The true reason for the decision to halt the German armour on 24 May is still a matter of debate. One theory states that Von Rundstedt and Hitler agreed to conserve the armour for Fall Rot, an operation to the south. It is possible that the air force’s closer ties than the army to the Nazi Party contributed to Hitler’s approval of Göring’s request. Another theory—which has recently been disputed—was that Hitler was still trying to establish diplomatic peace with Britain before Operation Barbarossa.
Although von Rundstedt after the war stated his suspicions that Hitler wanted “to help the British”, based on alleged praise of the British Empire during a visit to his headquarters, no evidence exists that Hitler wanted to let the Allies escape.Brian Bond stated: Few historians now accept the view that Hitler’s behavior was influenced by the desire to let the British off lightly in hope that they would then accept a compromise peace.
True, in his political testament dated 26 February 1945 Hitler lamented that Churchill was “quite unable to appreciate the sporting spirit” in which he had refrained from annihilating [the British Expeditionary Force, or BEF] at Dunkirk, but this hardly squares with the contemporary record. Directive No. 13, issued by the Supreme Headquarters on 24 May called specifically for the annihilation of the French, English and Belgian forces in the pocket, while the Luftwaffe was ordered to prevent the escape of the English forces across the channel. Whatever the reasons for Hitler’s decision, the Germans confidently believed that the Allied troops were doomed.
But they were seriously mistaken and the rest as they say is history Germans suffered a momentous defeat shattering the once an all Mighty and Powerful Nazi Germany while the most powerful man on the planet at that time Adolf Hitler died a nameless and faceless Death.
Now what did Hitler do wrong what he did wrong was he overthought everything in my opinion and because of that made a huge blunder ultimately costing him the war. He forgot the cardinal rule “Everything’s Fair in Love and War”…. Since 9/11 Pakistan has given close to 60,000 dead and wounded with Billions of Dollars worth of loss to Economy,Land and Infrastructure…To understand the point of all this is first to determine the ‘FACT’ that Pakistan is in a “State Of War” and has been in such a situation for over a decade.
Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Heidelberg in 1921. He joined the Nazi Party in 1924, and worked with Gregor Strasser in their northern branch. He was appointed as Gauleiter (district leader) for Berlin in 1926, where he began to take an interest in the use of propaganda to promote the party and its programme. After the Nazi Seizure of Power in 1933, Goebbels’ Propaganda Ministry quickly gained and exerted controlling supervision over the news media, arts, and information in Germany. He was particularly adept at using the relatively new media of radio and film for propaganda purposes. Topics for party propaganda included antisemitism, attacks on the Christian churches, and (after the start of the Second World War) attempting to shape morale.
In 1943, Goebbels began to pressure Hitler to introduce measures that would produce total war, including closing businesses not essential to the war effort, conscripting women into the labour force, and enlisting men in previously exempt occupations into the Wehrmacht. Hitler finally appointed him as Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War on 23 July 1944, whereby Goebbels undertook largely unsuccessful measures to increase the number of people available for armaments production and the Wehrmacht.
As the war drew to a close and Nazi Germany faced defeat, Magda Goebbels and the Goebbels children joined him in Berlin. They moved into the underground Vorbunker, part of Hitler’s underground bunker complex, on 22 April 1945. Hitler committed suicide on 30 April. In accordance with Hitler’s will, Goebbels succeeded him as Chancellor of Germany; he served one day in this post. The following day, Goebbels and his wife committed suicide, after poisoning their six children with cyanide.
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944. The invaders were able to establish a beachhead as part of Operation Overlord after a successful “D-Day,” the first day of the invasion.
Allied land forces came from the United States, Britain, Canada, and Free French forces. In the weeks following the invasion, Polish forces and contingents from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece and the Netherlands participated in the ground campaign; most also provided air and naval support alongside elements of the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, and the Royal Norwegian Navy.[nb 1]
The Normandy invasion began with overnight parachute and glider landings, massive air attacks and naval bombardments. In the early morning, amphibious landings commenced on five beaches codenamed Sword, Juno, Gold, Omaha and Utah, with troops from the United States landing on Omaha and Utah, Great Britain landing on Gold and Sword and Canada landing on Juno. During the evening the remaining elements of the airborne divisions landed. Land forces used on D-Day sailed from bases along the south coast of England, the most important of these being Portsmouth.
Alan Mathison Turing OBE FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.
During the Second World War, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Britain’s codebreaking centre that produced Ultra intelligence. For a time he led Hut 8, the section which was responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphers, including improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine. Turing played a pivotal role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazis in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlantic, and in so doing helped win the war. Counterfactual history is difficult with respect to the effect Ultra intelligence had on the length of the war, but at the upper end it has been estimated that this work shortened the war in Europe by more than two years and saved over fourteen million lives.
Cryptanalysis of the Enigma enabled the western Allies in World War II to read substantial amounts of secret Morse-coded radio communications of the Axis powers that had been enciphered using Enigma machines. This yielded military intelligence which, along with that from other decrypted Axis radio and teleprinter transmissions, was given the codename Ultra. This was considered by western Supreme Allied Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower to have been “decisive” to the Allied victory.
While the expression ‘Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse’ has long been used on the internet to refer to criminals like drug dealers, money launderers, pedophiles and terrorists, the term ‘Infocalypse’ was brought to the mainstream relatively recently by MIT grad Aviv Ovadya, who’s currently working as the Chief Technologist at the Center for Social Media Responsibility (UMSI). In 2016, at the height of the fake news crisis, Ovadya had expressed concerns to technologists in Silicon Valley about the spread of misinformation and propaganda disguised as real news in a presentation titled ‘Infocalypse’.
According to his presentation, internet platforms like Google, Facebook and Twitter earn their revenues is all geared towards rewarding clicks, shares and viewership rather than prioritizing the quality of information. That, he argued, was going to be real problem sooner rather than later, given how easy it has become to post whatever anyone feels like without any filter. With major internet companies largely ignoring his concerns, Ovadya described the situation as “car careening out of control” which everyone just ignored.
While his predictions have now proven to be frighteningly accurate, there’s more bad news for those concerned about the blurring of lines between the truth and the politically motivated propaganda. According to him, AI will be widely used over the next couple of decades for misinformation campaigns and propaganda. In order to stop that dystopian future, Ovadya is working in tandem with a group of researchers and academics to see what can be done to prevent an information apocalypse.
One such aspect is deepfakes or AI-generated videos of celebrities morphed on other videos, largely porn. Reddit recently banned at least two such subreddits called ‘r/deepfakes’ and ‘r/deepfakesNSFW’ which already had thousands of members, and were distributing fake pornographic videos of various celebrities, like Taylor Swift, Meghan Markle, and the likes. Other platforms, like Discord, Gyfcat, Pornhub and Twitter, meanwhile, have also banned non-consensual face-swap porn on their platforms.
Beyond violation of individual privacy, Ovadya says such videos could have a destabilizing effect on the world, if used for political gains. They can “create the belief that an event has occurred” to influence geopolitics and economy. All you need is to feed the AI with as much footage of a target politician as possible, and have them morphed on another video saying potentially damaging things.
The one sliver of hope, however, is that people are finally admitting that they were wrong to shut out the threat from fake news two years ago. According to Ovadya, “In the beginning it was really bleak — few listened. But the last few months have been really promising. Some of the checks and balances are beginning to fall into place”. While it’s certainly a positive that technologists are looking to address a problem that’s expected to get worse in the coming years, it will be interesting to see how well they will be prepared for the upcoming information warfare when we are finally presented with the worst case scenario, given that, “a lot of the warning signs have already happened”, according to Ovadya.
Wonder Woman and the Psychologist
William Moulton Marston (May 9, 1893 – May 2, 1947), also known by the pen name Charles Moulton, was an American psychologist, inventor of an early prototype of the lie detector, self-help author, and comic book writer who created the character Wonder Woman. Two women, his wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston and partner Olive Byrne, both greatly influenced Wonder Woman’s creation.
Marston was the creator of the systolic blood pressure test, which became one component of the modern polygraph invented by John Augustus Larson in Berkeley, California. Marston’s wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston suggested a connection between emotion and blood pressure to William, observing that, “[w]hen she got mad or excited, her blood pressure seemed to climb”. Although Elizabeth is not listed as Marston’s collaborator in his early work, Lamb, Matte (1996), and others refer directly and indirectly to Elizabeth’s own work on her husband’s research. She also appears in a picture taken in his laboratory in the 1920s (reproduced by Marston, 1938).
Marston set out to commercialize Larson’s invention of the polygraph when he subsequently embarked on a career in entertainment and comic book writing and appeared as a salesman in ads for Gillette Razors, using a polygraph motif.
From his psychological work, Marston became convinced that women were more honest than men in certain situations and could work faster and more accurately. During his lifetime Marston championed the latent abilities and causes of the women of his day.
Marston was also a writer of essays in popular psychology. In 1928 he published Emotions of Normal People, which elaborated the DISC Theory. Marston viewed people behaving along two axes, with their attention being either passive or active, depending on the individual’s perception of his or her environment as either favorable or antagonistic. By placing the axes at right angles, four quadrants form with each describing a behavioral pattern:
Dominance produces activity in an antagonistic environment
Inducement produces activity in a favorable environment
Submission produces passivity in a favorable environment
Compliance produces passivity in an antagonistic environment.
Marston posited that there is a masculine notion of freedom that is inherently anarchic and violent and an opposing feminine notion based on “Love Allure” that leads to an ideal state of submission to loving authority. In 1929, he wrote on the blossoming Men’s Rights Movement as a newspaper columnist.
William Moulton Marston’s philosophy of diametric opposites has bled into his design of his Wonder Woman mythology. This theme of diametrics took the form of his emphasis on certain masculine and feminine configurations as well as dominance and submission.
Marston’s “Wonder Woman” is an early example of bondage themes that were entering popular culture in the 1930s. Physical and mental submission appears again and again throughout Marston’s comics work, with Wonder Woman and her criminal opponents frequently being tied up or otherwise restrained, and her Amazonian sisters engaging in frequent wrestling and bondage play. These elements were softened by later writers of the series, who dropped such characters as the Nazi-like blond female slaver Eviless completely, despite her having formed the original Villainy Inc. of Wonder Woman’s enemies (in Wonder Woman #28, the last by Marston.)
Though Marston had described female nature as being more capable of submission emotion, in his other writings and interviews, he referred to submission as a noble practice and did not shy away from the sexual implications, saying:
The only hope for peace is to teach people who are full of pep and unbound force to enjoy being bound… Only when the control of self by others is more pleasant than the unbound assertion of self in human relationships can we hope for a stable, peaceful human society… Giving to others, being controlled by them, submitting to other people cannot possibly be enjoyable without a strong erotic element.
One of the purposes of these bondage depictions was to induce eroticism in readers as a part of what he called “sex love training.” Through his Wonder Woman comics, he aimed to condition readers to becoming more readily accepting of loving submission to loving authorities rather than being so assertive with their own destructive egos.
About male readers, he later wrote: “Give them an alluring woman stronger than themselves to submit to, and they’ll be proud to become her willing slaves!”
Marston combined these themes with others, including restorative and transformative justice, rehabilitation, regret and their roles in civilization. These appeared often in his depiction of the near-ideal Amazon civilization of Paradise Island, and especially its Reform Island penal colony, which played a central role in many stories and was the “loving” alternative to retributive justice of the world run by men. These themes are particularly evident in his last story, in which prisoners freed by Eviless, who have responded to Amazon rehabilitation and now have good dominance/submission, stop her and restore the Amazons to power.
Some of these themes continued on in Silver Age characters, who may have been influenced by Marston, notably Saturn Girl and Saturn Queen, who (like Eviless and her female army) are also from Saturn, are also clad in tight, dark red bodysuits, are also blond or red-haired, and also have telepathic powers. Stories involving the latter have been especially focused on the emotions involved in changing sides from evil to good, as were stories from Green Lantern’s “Blackest Night” with its Emotional Spectrum which was likely influenced by Marston’s research into emotions. Wonder Woman’s golden lasso and Venus Girdle in particular were the focus of many of the early stories and have the same capability to reform people for good in the short term that Transformation Island and prolonged wearing of Venus Girdles offered in the longer term. The Venus Girdle was an allegory for Marston’s theory of “sex love” training, where people can be “trained” to embrace submission through eroticism.
A BRITISH writer believes he may have uncovered the mystery behind Hitler’s decision to stop German troops advancing on Allied Forces at Dunkirk – despite having them almost surrounded.
Author Stephen Davis while researching the Second World War for his latest novel, I Spy The Wolf, claims he may have uncovered the reason why Hitler infamously and mysteriously stopped advancing his troops at Dunkirk – a decision some say was a crucial break for the Allied Forces.
On May 24, 1940, the German army appeared to winning the war as Allied Forces were surrounded by land at Dunkirk.
But instead of continuing the invasion, Hitler ordered his army to halt for three days, a decision that has puzzled historians for over 70 years.
Those three days allowed British troops to evacuate across the English Channel to Dover, in Kent before planning their offensive.
Now Mr Davis, reveals what may have been behind the Nazi dictator’s decision to halt.
He said: “When German forces began to trap British troops at Dunkirk, Mussolini, the Italian Dictator, informed Hitler that he intended to declare war against France and Britain.
He added: “What is known is that on the day Hitler stopped the troops advancing his generals reported in their diaries that he was in very good humour and told them the war would be over within days or weeks.
“Ten days after the German tanks began to attack France, General Jodl wrote in his diary that the Führer was “beside himself with joy” adding that he was “working on the peace treaty”. After which he [Hitler] told them he would make a “just peace” settlement with Britain.”